The author of this paper makes much over the fact that Gandalf "put the fear of fire" into Gollum during his interrogation without giving any kind of creative thought to what this might mean. Gandalf has demonstrated mastery over fire in many different forms both in The Hobbit and in LOTR. But the author seems to forget that the true fire that Gandalf both serves and manipulates is not literal fire but the fire of the spirit. The power of the Elf Ring Narya is to inspire courage and rekindle hope in the hearts of those who are despairing. The Fire Gandalf serves is the Flame Imperishable -- the creative fire of Eru, the One. Is it not more likely that Gandalf opened Gollum's eyes to the fire of the spirit in order to obtain the truth from him? I do not for one minute believe that Gandalf had to resort to physical torture with so mean and small and pitiful a creature as Gollum. That would be completely beneath him.
The author of this paper also overlooks another very important "interrogation" of Smeagol/Gollum -- the questioning by Faramir in Henneth Annun:
In this passage, Gollum appears to be cowed by Faramir's "unwavering" glance that will not be tricked or fooled by falsehood. I think this interrogation gives us a clue as to the true nature of Gandalf's session with Gollum as well. Both Faramir and Gandalf had to endure Gollum's nattering, slavering prevarications, but in the end, he could not prevail under the light (the fire) of a true spirit. Physical torture was competely unnecessary.Slowly Gollum raised his eyes and looked unwillingly into Faramir's. All light went out of them, and they stared bleak and pale for a moment into the clear unwavering eyes of the man of Gondor. There was a still silence. Then Gollum dropped his head and shrank down, until he was squatting on the floor, shivering. "We doesn't know and we doesn't want to know," he whimpered. "Never came here; never come again."
"There are locked doors and closed windows in your mind, and dark rooms behind them," said Faramir. "But in this I judge that you speak the truth. It is well for you . . . ."
The author does have a point about the hypocrisy of our modern Western culture in condemning the use of torture on the part of our "enemies," but having no problem resorting to it ourselves when "democracy" is being "threatened." However, he runs completely off the tracks by trying to use Gandalf to make his point.